Canadian Immigration Law

Sergio R. Karas

Beware of Misrepresentations in Canadian Immigration Law

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act ("IRPA") in force since June 28, 2002 contains a number of provisions dealing with misrepresentations made by foreign nationals or by other persons with respect to applications for immigration status. Applicants, sponsors, employers, and any other person who is a party to an application should be careful to ensure that no misrepresentation is made to the authorities. The spectre of potential liability is very real under the new immigration legislation.

Section 40(1) of the IRPA specifically states that:
"A permanent resident or an immigrant national is inadmissible for misrepresentation

  1. for directly or indirectly misrepresenting or withholding material facts relating to a relevant matter that induces or could induce an error in the administration of this Act;
  2. for being or having been sponsored by a person who is determined to be inadmissible for misrepresentation;
  3. on a final determination to vacate a decision to allow the claim for refugee protection by the permanent resident or the foreign national; or
  4. on ceasing to be a citizen under paragraph 10(1)(a) of the Citizenship Act, in the circumstances set out in subsection 10(2) of that Act.

This provision is directed against an applicant attempting to misrepresent to gain any immigration status.

In the noteworthy case of Wang v. Canada, the Federal Court held that the broad language of Section 40 (1)(a) of the IRPA includes inadmissibility for misrepresentations made by a third party, even where the third party was not making it knowingly. In that case, the applicant, Ms. Wang, came to Canada on a student visa. She married her husband several years prior to coming to Canada. Her husband, unbeknownst to her, was already married and had a son. When her husband applied to Canada for immigration status as an Entrepreneur, Ms. Wang was included as an accompanying spouse however her husband's previous relationship was never disclosed to Canadian immigration authorities. Both Ms. Wang and her husband became Permanent Residents of Canada. Several years later, Ms. Wang applied for Canadian Citizenship and around the time of being interviewed, her husband told her for the first time that he was previously married and had a son on his application for Permanent Residence. As a result of the husband's failure to disclose that he was already married and had a son, an exclusion order was issued against the husband for directly misrepresenting a material fact and also against Ms. Wang for indirectly misrepresenting a material fact as the accompanying spouse. The exclusion order against Ms. Wang was issued pursuant to paragraph 40(1)(a) of IRPA. Ms. Wang argued that she should not be held accountable for her husband's misrepresentation, as she was unaware of it at the time of the application for residency in Canada. The court rejected her argument.

In the case, the question became whether the language in paragraph 40(1)(a) of the IRPA, "indirectly misrepresenting or withholding material facts" includes the situation of an applicant who was unaware of her husband's misrepresentation. After carefully examining the arguments, the court held that allowing a person to benefit from the misrepresentation of another would lead to a potential absurdity, in that an applicant could directly misrepresent and his accompanying spouse could then not be removable from Canada, if that person could argue that he or she had no knowledge of the misrepresentation. The court further held that the word "indirectly" can be interpreted to cover the situation where an applicant relies on being included in another person's application, even though he or she did not know that a misrepresentation was being made. The court stressed in its decision that the purpose of the provision was to eliminate abuse. Although the decision seems harsh, at first glance, its reasoning appears to be correct and in line with Parliament's legislative intent, as indicated by the Canadian court in its opinion citing the parliamentary debates prior to the passage of the IRPA.

In Mendiratta v. Canada, the court dismissed the judicial review application brought by a 65 year old citizen of India who was the subject of a removal order. The applicant obtained permanent resident status under Humanitarian and Compassionate grounds, stating that she was a widow and had no relatives outside Canada, and resided with her Canadian citizen daughter, her son-in-law and the couple's two children. After eight years in Canada, the applicant decided to return to India and spent over five months there. During her last stay, she was persuaded to resume her relationship with her husband from whom she was separated. Upon her return to Canada, she became the subject of a report indicating that she was inadmissible under Section 40(1)(a) of the Act for directly or indirectly misrepresenting or withholding material facts to a relevant matter that induces or can induce an error in the administration of Act. The Canadian authorities took the view that the person concerned, having previously indicated that she was widowed when she applied for permanent resident status, sought to sponsor her husband in India, where she also had one son as well as two daughters. Her Record of Landing indicated her marital status as widowed, and the supplementary information provided to establish the existence of Humanitarian and Compassionate grounds also made extensive references to the fact that she had no other relatives in her country of origin. The Immigration Appeal Division in Canada upheld the validity of her removal order. The Federal Court reaffirmed the principle that the obligation to disclose information accurately ultimately rests on the applicant.

However, in Huang v. Canada, the Federal Court granted judicial review to an investor applicant from China, who had made contradictory statements in his application for permanent residence concerning the provenance of his funds. In his characteristic colourful language, Harrington J. disagreed with the proposition that, while a finding of misrepresentation is subject to a patent unreasonableness standard of review, the "inducement" portion of Section 40 may be reviewed on a reasonableness simpliciter standard. In that case, Mr. Huang had applied to the Newfoundland Provincial Nominee Program, and when his file was considered, visa officers became concerned that his financial interests in a Chinese company were not readily verifiable. Mr. Huang submitted a verification report from an audit firm confirming that he had an 80% interest in his construction company. However, the document indicated that the commercial concern was a "sole proprietorship", a contradictory characterization of the venture. Apparently, the visa officers in Canada attempted to contact the audit firm, which unfortunately first claimed that his report was a fraud, and that it had no records of it in its files, but later recanted and indicated that it had been lost in the course of moving. This heightened the concern of the visa officers about Mr. Huang's business activities. Harrington J. referred to the evidence in the case, which suggested difficulties with the definition of "sole proprietorship" and "corporation" under Chinese law, and he also chastised the visa officers for lack of follow up and further inquiries to clear their doubts. Despite the positive outcome for the applicant in this case, it must be cautioned that it appears to have been decided solely on its facts. In addition, the decision is very brief and does not appear to be clearly reasoned.

Section 40(2) allows the Canadian authorities to consider an individual to be inadmissible for a period of two years following the final determination of the application, after the misrepresentation is discovered and the decision communicated to the applicant:
"The following provisions govern subsection (1):

  1. the permanent resident or the foreign national continues to be inadmissible for misrepresentation for a period of two years following, in the case of a determination outside Canada, a final determination of inadmissibility under subsection (1) or, in the case of a determination in Canada, the date the removal order is enforced; and
  2. paragraph (1)(b) does not apply unless the Minister is satisfied that the facts of the case justify the inadmissibility."

A different provision, but one that may affect all applicants applying to Canada more directly, is found in Section 127 of IRPA which states:
"No person shall knowingly

  1. directly or indirectly misrepresent or withhold material facts relating to a relevant matter that induces or could induce an error in the administration of this Act;
  2. communicate, directly or indirectly, by any means, false or misleading information or declarations with intent to induce or deter immigration to Canada;
  3. refuse to be sworn or to affirm or declare, as the case may be, or to answer a question put to the person at an examination or at a proceeding held under this Act".

This broad language appears to be a deliberate attempt to encompass almost any form of misrepresentation or withholding or information by anyone, including an applicant, employer, lawyer or any third party representative. However, the use of the qualifying word "knowingly" would suggest a high threshold to be met in any prosecution.

In Canada, counseling or aiding misrepresentation, directly or indirectly, or withholding material facts relating to a relevant matter that "induces or could induce an error in the administration of the Act" is an offence under Section 126, and in Canada, can lead to very serious consequences for those found guilty of a breach:

"Every person who knowingly counsels, induces, aids or abets or attempts to counsel, induce, aid or abet any person to directly or indirectly misrepresent or withhold material facts relating to a relevant matter that induces or could induce an error in the administration of this Act is guilty of an offence."

The matter arose in R. v. Tongo, a case dealing with organizing the entry of illegal immigrants into Canada, where the provisions of Section 127 of the IRPA were considered. In that case, a British Columbia Provincial Court judge held that the IRPA establishes a number of general offences to discourage persons from engaging in activities such as employing illegal migrants or withholding relevant information. The accused pleaded guilty to misrepresentation of a material fact under Section 127(a) of IRPA, the material fact in fact case was concealing the presence of three Chinese illegal migrants on board a ship. Although the case dealt with transporting illegal migrants, it is noteworthy that the court chose to make a general statement endorsing Parliament's policy goal of attempting to curtail illegal immigration into Canada and misrepresentation and combating organized crime and human smuggling.

In R. v. Parmar , the accused, Ms. Parmar was charged under Section 127 (b) of IRPA, that she falsely told Canadian immigration officers that she wished to immigrate from India to Canada to be with her husband, while in reality she only wished to come to Canada to visit. Apparently, as soon as she arrived in Canada, she and her relatives were subjected to demands for financial payment by her husband in exchange for sponsoring her as a dependent. Ms. Parmar was convicted at trial and sentenced to four months imprisonment. However, the conviction was quashed on appeal by the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench, based on their interpretation the evidence presented at trial, as the opposing parties had made numerous contradictory statements. In words of the court, "it could not be determined who was telling the truth". Despite the ultimate acquittal, the case should be a warning sign to those who misrepresent their true intentions when applying for any type of Canadian visa.

In R. v. Lin, the accused was charged by indictment with five counts of counselling, inducing, aiding or abetting, five Chinese nationals to directly or indirectly misrepresent or withhold material facts relating to a matter that could induce an error in the administration of the Act in Canada, contrary to the provisions of Section 126 of IRPA. The charges arose in connection with a well organized and planned venture to transport the said five individuals to Canada on board the cruise ship Star Princess, claiming to be Korean nationals and tourists. Mr. Lin apparently counselled them as to the false statements that would support their bogus identities and, since he was the only one in the group who could speak English, he made representations on their behalf when questioned by Canadian immigration officers. It was later discovered that Mr. Lin was part of an organized crime ring moving individuals surreptitiously to Canada. The court in Canada convicted him and referred to the case of R. v. Tongo, but disagreed with the sentence and based on the factual situation, imposed a higher sentence of one year's imprisonment in a penitentiary.

Immigration lawyers and their staff should be particularly cautious and ensure that they do not participate, knowingly or unwittingly, in assisting an applicant or a third party to an application (e.g. an employer or a sponsor) in making any misrepresentation or withholding any material facts. In such cases, immigration lawyers may find themselves embroiled in potential litigation or facing criminal charges. It remains to be seen how aggressive prosecutions in Canada will be in this area.

Canadian employers in particular should be cautious when assigning a foreign worker to perform specific duties within the organization. Section 124(1)(c) of the IRPA states that it is a contravention of the Act to "employ a foreign national in a capacity in which the foreign national is not authorized under this Act to be employed". It is therefore critical that employers who intend to reassign foreign workers to different duties or positions within the organization obtain legal advice from an immigration lawyer prior to doing so, and take active steps to file the appropriate documentation to obtain changes to the terms and conditions attached to the Work Permit or Labour Market Opinion, if one was obtained.

Applicants and their immigration lawyers may find solace in the fact that the legislation in Canada recognizes a defense of "due diligence" and states that no one can be found guilty of an offence for a contravention if reasonable steps were taken to prevent it. That situation arose in an obscure reported case in the Northwest Territories; R v. Perez where a person who had an expired visitor's visa and an application pending for permanent residence in Canada had also applied for an extension of a Work Permit, but had not received it before continuing his employment in Canada. Immigration officers visited the workplace and the accused was charged with working without authorization, but was acquitted because the court recognized that he had "honest and reasonable belief" that he was not working without authorization. The court noted in that case that the accused took reasonable care in the circumstances to avoid committing an offence and, therefore, was not liable.

However, the British Columbia Court of Appeal was less inclined to be forgiving in R.v. John Doe (also cited as R. v. Mohammed Rafik Kahan), where the appellant pleaded guilty to three indictable offences relating to misrepresentation of his identity as he attempted to enter the country using a forged Canadian passport. The evidence in that case disclosed that the appellant was a "fraud artist" who had also obtained a false United Kingdom passport. He was convicted of misrepresentation and use of false documents and sentenced to twenty three months in a Canadian jail. In a strongly worded judgement, the Canadian court determined the sentence to be a fit one and even somewhat in the low range.

The misrepresentation provisions of the legislation highlight the duty of care and due diligence that applicants and their immigration lawyers must exercise in the context of immigration representation. Immigration lawyer or any other person who grossly exaggerate the qualifications of potential applicants, or misrepresent their circumstances, financial records, documentary evidence, family status, and employment offered, or any other material fact, may expose themselves to liability and serious penalties. Exercising caution and obtaining the appropriate legal advice from a Canadian immigration lawyer is the most prudent course of action in situations involving immigration applications.

Sergio R. Karas of Karas & Associates is a Certified Specialist in Canadian Citizenship and Immigration Law by the Law Society of Upper Canada, current Vice-Chair of the IBA Immigration and Nationality Committee, and Vice-Chair of the Ontario Bar Association Citizenship and Immigration Section.

Contact Sergio Karas today.

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